EPHOD (1) ef’-od (‘ephowdh (28 times), ‘ephodh (20 times), ‘ephodh; Septuagint epomis, ephoth, ephod, ephoud, stole exallos, stole bussine): (1) A sacred vestment originally designed for the high priest (Exodus 28:4; 39:2), and made “of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet,… (READ MORE)

Samson: Man of Great Strength

And Manoah said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God. 23 But his wife said unto him, If the Lord were pleased to kill us, he would not have received a burnt offering and a meat offering at… (READ MORE)


Baal was a pagan god of storms and fertility, worshipped throughout the ancient Middle East because of its association with powerful forces.  Its name literally means “Owner,”  “Master,” or “Husband” in Canaanite literature,  Baal is often associated with the fertility… (READ MORE)

Judges 20-21 Civil War

The perpetrators of the assault of the concubine are members of the tribe of Benjamin.  When the gathered tribes demand surrender of the criminals, the Benjamites refuse.  This brings on a destructive civil war in which the Benjamites are nearly… (READ MORE)

Judges 19 Immorality

Another Levite is traveling with his concubine,  He refuses to stay in Jerusalem, still occupied by Jebusites, and goes on to an Israelite town.  When he is finally offered hospitality, the house is surrounded by citizens who demand the Levite… (READ MORE)

Judges 17 Micah’s idols

An Ephraimite named Micah steals 28 pounds of silver from his mother.  Frightened when he overhears her curse the thief, he returns it.  The mother dedicates the silver “to the Lord” to be made into an idol! Thus he returned… (READ MORE)

Outline: Judges 17-21. Portraits of Decay

Judges concludes with a series of tales from earlier days in the times of the judges.  Each story explores the impact of Israel’s apostasy.  The community has refused responsibility for disciplining its members to covenant life.  The next stage in… (READ MORE)

Samson: Judges 13:1 – 16:31

Samson is given more space in the biblical record than any other judge.  He is also undoubtedly the least qualified morally for leadership – the only judge whose rule did not bring some relief from the oppressors. The story of… (READ MORE)

Judges 10 Tola and Jair

Then the children of Israel again did evil in the sight of the Lord, and served the Baals and the Ashtoreths, the gods of Syria, the gods of Sidon, the gods of Moab, the gods of the people of Ammon,… (READ MORE)

Judges 8 & 9 Reign of Gideon Followed by Abimelech

After victory, the Israelites urge Gibeon to become their king, and credit him with the victory.  Gideon refuses.  Only God should be recognized as Israel’s monarch.  For the rest of Gideon’s life, the people refrain from Baal worship. But Gideon’s… (READ MORE)